Uravidam Programme tips
Ginger farming techniques part 1 – malayalam – protray ginger – low budget house farming
inger, an indigenous plant, is an important spice crop of the world. It is valued in medicine as a carminative and stimulant of the gastro-intestinal tract. Dry ginger is used for the manufacture of oil, oleoresin, essence, soft drink, non-alcoholic beverages and vitaminesed effervescent soft drinks. India is the largest producer and exporter to more than 50 countries accounting for more than 70% of world production.
The botanical name of ginger is Zingiber officinale L. which belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. Ginger is a herbaceous perennial with underground rhizomes having serial leafy shoots of 0.5 to 0.75m height; leaves sheathy, alternately arranged, linear with 15 cm long and sessile flowers borne on a spike, condensed, oblong and cylindrical with numerous scar bracts; flowers numerous yellow in colour with dark purplish spots, bisexual, epigynous, stamens only one, ovary inferior, three carpelled; fruit an oblong capsule, seeds glabrous and fairly large.
Climate and Soil
Ginger grows best in warm and humid climate. It is mainly cultivated in the tropics from sea level to an altitude of 1500m, both under rainfed and irrigated conditions. For successful cultivation of the crop, a moderate rainfall at the sowing time till the rhizomes sprout, fairly heavy and well-distributed showers during the growing period, and dry weather with a temperature of 280 to 350C for about a month before harvesting are necessary. Prevalence of high humidity throughout the crop period is desirable. Ginger thrives best in well-drained soils like sandy or clay loam, red loam or lateritic loam. A friable loam, rich in humus are ideal. However, being an exhaustive crop, soil should be rich in fertility.
Several cultivars of ginger are grown in the different ginger growing areas in India. They are generally named after the localities or places where they are grown. Some of the more prominent indigenous types are Maran (Assam), Kuruppampadi, Ernad and Wynad local (all from Kerala). A high yielding introduction Rio-de-Janeiro has become very popular among the growers. Its yield potential is 25 to 35 tonnes per ha. The fiber content is 5.19 % and dry ginger recovery is 16-18 %. Recently, High Altitude Research Station, Pottangi (Orissa) has released three improved varieties.